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Title: Section 6-1.29 - Swimming pool design standards

Effective Date


6-1.29 Swimming pool design standards.
1.0 Definitions.

1.1 Swimming pool shall mean a man-made structure, together with
buildings and appurtenances used in connection therewith, intended for
bathing, swimming or diving purposes, made of concrete, masonry, metal
or other impervious material, located either indoors or outdoors, and
provided with a controlled water supply.

1.2 Spa pool shall mean a swimming pool, primarily designed for
therapeutic use or relaxation, which is normally not drained, cleaned or
refilled for each individual. It may include, but is not limited to,
hydrojet circulation, hot water, cold water, mineral bath, air
induction, bubbles or any combination thereof. Spa pools are shallow in
depth and not designed for swimming or diving use.

1.3 Uniform Code shall mean the New York State Uniform Fire Prevention
and Building Code, 9 NYCRR Subtitle S, Chapter I.

1.4 Adequate shall mean sufficient to accomplish the purpose for which
something is intended, and to such a degree that no unreasonable risk to
health or safety is presented. An item installed, maintained, designed
and assembled, an activity conducted or act performed, in accordance
with generally accepted standards, principles or practices applicable to
a particular trade, business, occupation or profession, is adequate
within the meaning of this Subpart.

2.0 Submission of plans.

2.1 General. All plans shall be prepared by a person licensed by the
State of New York to practice engineering or architecture. All
construction shall comply with the requirements of the Uniform Code. It
is desirable that preliminary plans, specifications and an engineer's
design report be submitted for review prior to the preparation of final
plans. Plans, specifications and reports submitted for formal approval
must contain sufficient information to demonstrate to the reviewing
authority that the proposed swimming pool, or improvements thereto, will
meet the standards contained herein and shall include, but not be
limited to, those factors hereinafter set forth in items 2.2.1 through 2.2.7, inclusive.

2.2 Basis of design report.

2.2.1 Swimming pool perimeter, area and volume.

2.2.2 Flow rate, turnover and filtration rate.

2.2.3 Anticipated swimmer load (maximum and average).

2.2.4 Source, quality, quantity available and characteristics of water
supply, including alkalinity, pH, iron and manganese.

2.2.5 Detailed description of filtration, recirculation equipment and
chemical feed equipment.

2.2.6 Hydraulic computations including head loss in all piping and
recirculation equipment.

2.2.7 Pump curves, showing that the proposed recirculation pump can
adequately pump proposed flows.

2.3 Plans and specifications.

2.3.1 General layout plan. Name and address of the proposed facility and the name and
address of the owner. Scale, north point and direction of prevailing wind. Date, address, name, professional seal and signature of the
designing engineer or architect. A plot plan of the property to be used, indicating the
topography, the arrangement and location of present and proposed
structures, and the location of present and proposed swimming pool.

2.3.2 Detailed plans. All detailed plans shall be drawn to a suitable
scale and include the following information: Complete construction details, including dimensions,
elevations and appropriate cross-sections. Schematic diagrams and plan and elevation views of the pool
water treatment and recirculation system. Size and location of all piping, including elevations.

2.3.3 Specifications. Complete, detailed specifications for the
construction of the swimming pool, bathhouse, recirculation system,
filtration facilities, disinfection equipment and all other
appurtenances shown on detailed plans shall be submitted.

3.0 Patron use.

3.1 Designation of areas. For purposes of computing patron use within
the pool enclosure, those portions of the swimming pool five feet or
less in depth shall be designated the "shallow area." Those portions of
the swimming pool over five feet in depth shall be designated the "deep

3.2 Design bather capacity.

3.2.1 Shallow area. Fifteen square feet of pool water surface area
shall be provided for each patron.

3.2.2 Deep area. Twenty-five square feet of pool water surface area
shall be provided for each patron.

3.2.3 Diving area. Three hundred square feet of pool water surface
area shall be reserved around each diving board or diving platform, and
this area shall not be included in computing the permissible patron use.

3.2.4 Spa pools. Ten square feet per person shall be provided for each

3.3 Excess deck allowance. Additional allowance will be made on the
basis of one additional patron allowed per each 50 square feet of pool
deck in excess of the minimum area of deck required in item 5.9 of this

4.0 Construction material.

4.1 Materials. Swimming pools shall be constructed of materials which
are inert, stable, nontoxic, watertight and enduring. Sand or earth
bottoms or unlined wooden tubs are not permitted.

4.2 Corners. All corners formed by intersection of pool walls and
floor shall be rounded.

4.3 Finish. Pool bottom and sides must be white or a light color with
a smooth and easily cleanable surface.

5.0 Design, detail and structural stability. All swimming pools shall
be designed and constructed to withstand all anticipated loading for
both full and empty conditions. A hydrostatic relief valve and/or a
suitable underdrain system shall be provided. The designing architect or
engineer shall be responsible for certifying the structural stability
and safety of the pool during full and empty conditions.

5.1 Shape. The shape of any swimming pool shall be such that the
circulation of pool water and control of swimmers' safety are not
impaired. There shall be no underwater or overhead projections or
obstructions which would endanger patron safety or interfere with pool

5.2 Minimum depth. The minimum depth of water in the pool shall be
three feet, except for special-purpose and wading pools.

5.3 Bottom slope. The bottom of the pool shall slope toward the main
drain. The slope in water depths less than five feet shall not exceed 1
foot vertical to 12 feet horizontal.

5.4 Area marked. The boundary line between the shallow and deep areas
shall be marked with a four-inch stripe of contrasting color on the
floor and walls of the pool, and by a safety rope and floats equipped
with float keepers. Ledges and step edges shall also be marked with a
four-inch stripe of contrasting color.

5.5 Pool walls. Walls of a swimming pool shall be either: (1) vertical
for a distance of at least six feet; or (2) vertical for a distance of
at least three feet below the water level; below which the wall may be
curved to the bottom with a radius not greater than the difference
between the depth at that point and three feet; provided that vertical
is interpreted to permit slopes not greater than one foot horizontal for
each five feet of depth of sidewall (11 degrees from vertical).

5.5.1 Ledges. Ledges shall not extend into the pool unless they are
essential for support of the upper wall construction.

5.6 Diving areas. The minimum dimensions of the swimming pool and
appurtenances in the diving area shall conform to Table 1 of this
section. Pools designed for competitive diving can upon application
utilize nationally recognized competitive design standards.





Note: Minimum depth of five feet must be maintained when a wall
terminates pool area opposite diving boards. Otherwise, the specified
shallow area floor slope may be used to shallow end.






Max. board height
over water

Max. diving board




Pool Width

26"(2/3 meter)






30"(3/4 meter)






1 meter






3 meters







Placement of boards shall observe the following minimum dimensions.
With multiple-board installations, minimum pool widths must be increased

1 meter or less--Board to pool side 10'0"

3 meters--Board to pool side 12'0"

Distance between adjacent boards 10'0"

5.6.1 Headroom. There shall be a completely unobstructed clear
distance of 16 feet above the diving board, measured from the center of
the front end of the board. This area shall extend at least eight feet
behind, eight feet to each side, and 16 feet ahead of the measuring

5.6.2 Diving boards and platforms. The use of diving boards and
platforms in excess of three meters in height must be based on a design
that adequately addresses the special safety considerations associated
with such devices.

5.6.3 Steps and guardrails for diving boards. Supports, platforms and
steps for diving boards shall be of substantial construction and of
sufficient structural strength to safely carry the maximum anticipated
loads. Steps shall be of corrosion-resistant material, easily cleanable
and of nonslip design. Handrails shall be provided at all steps and
ladders leading to diving boards one meter or more above the water. The
guardrails shall be 30 inches high, extending at least to the edge of
the water.

5.7 Deck slides. All swimming pool slides, which may be installed at a
swimming pool, shall be labeled to show compliance with the requirements
of the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission or other generally
acceptable standards that will provide adequate protection for public
health and safety.

5.7.1 Depth. The bottom of any slide must discharge into a minimum
water depth of four feet.

5.8 Ladders, recessed steps and stairs.

5.8.1 Location. Recessed steps, ladders or stairs shall be provided at
the shallow and deep ends. Recessed steps or ladders shall be provided
in the deep portion. If the pool is over 30 feet wide, such steps,
ladders or stairs shall be installed on each side.

5.8.2 Ladders. Pool ladders shall be corrosion-resistant and shall be
equipped with nonslip treads. All ladders shall be so designed as to
provide a handhold. There shall be a clearance of not more than six
inches nor less than three inches between any ladder and the pool wall.

5.8.3 Recessed steps. Recessed steps shall be readily cleanable and
shall be arranged to drain into the pool. Recessed steps shall have a
minimum tread of 5 inches and a minimum width of 14 inches.

5.8.4 Handrails. Where recessed steps or ladders are provided, there
shall be a handrail at the top of each side thereof extending over the
coping or edge of the deck.

5.8.5 Stairs. Where stairs are provided, they shall be located
diagonally in a corner of the pool or be recessed. They shall be
equipped with a handrail. Stairs shall be of nonslip design, have a
minimum tread of 12 inches and a maximum rise of 10 inches.

5.9 Decks. A continuous clear deck shall surround the entire pool
perimeter. It shall be not less than five feet wide. The deck shall be
of a uniform, easily cleaned, impervious material and be protected from
surface runoff. Where diving boards or slides are installed, a clear
deck of not less than five feet shall be provided behind the diving
boards or slides.

5.9.1 Slope. The deck shall be sloped at least one-fourth inch per
foot to deck drains or grades.

5.9.2 Drainage. Deck drains, when used, shall be spaced and arranged
so that not more than 400 square feet of area is tributary to each
drain, and drains shall not be spaced more than 25 feet apart. There
shall be no direct connection between the pool deck drains and the
sanitary sewer system, or the pool gutter or recirculation system.

5.9.3 Roll-out gutters. If the pool is equipped with roll-out deck
level gutters, not more than five feet of deck shall be sloped toward
the gutters.

5.9.4 Carpeting. Carpeting shall not be permitted on pool decks unless
the carpet contains a label indicating it complies with the National
Sanitation Foundation Standards or other standards that will provide
adequate protection for public health and safety.

5.9.5 Hose bibbs. Hose bibbs shall be provided to facilitate flushing
of the deck areas and shall be provided with antisiphonage devices.

5.9.6 Spectator areas. There shall be an effective separation between
spectator areas and swimmer areas.

5.9.7 Food concessions. There shall be a separation between areas
where food and drink are served and areas used by pool patrons.

5.10 Fencing. All swimming pools, including wading pools, shall be
provided with an enclosure which shall comply with the following:

5.10.1 Shall be at least four feet in height and have a maximum
vertical clearance to grade of two inches.

5.10.2 Where a picket-type fence is provided, horizontal openings
between pickets shall not exceed 4 inches.

5.10.3 Where a chain-link fence is provided, the openings between
links shall not exceed 2-3/8 inches.

5.10.4 Enclosure shall be constructed so as not to provide footholds.

5.10.5 Pickets and chain-link twists shall extend above the upper
horizontal bar.

5.10.6 Such enclosure shall have railings and posts within the
enclosure, which shall be capable of resisting a minimum lateral load of
150 pounds applied midway between posts and at top of posts,
respectively. Enclosures, fence material or fabric shall be capable of
withstanding a concentrated lateral load of 50 pounds applied anywhere
between supports on an area 12 inches square, without failure or
permanent deformation. Gates provided in the enclosure shall be
self-closing and self-latching, with the latch handle located within the
enclosure and at least 40 inches above grade.

5.10.7 A wall of a multiple dwelling is permitted to serve as part of
the enclosure, provided that there is no direct access from the dwelling
to the pool.

6.0 Safety requirements.

6.1 Depth markings.

6.1.1 Location of depth markings. Depth of water shall be plainly
marked at or above the water surface on the vertical pool wall and/or on
the edge of the deck at maximum and minimum points and at break between
the deep and shallow portions, and at intermediate two-foot increments
of depth, spaced at not more than 25-foot intervals. Markings shall be
on both sides and ends of the pool. Where depth markings cannot be
placed on the vertical walls above the water level, other means shall be
used so that the markings will be plainly visible to persons in the
pool. Water depth shall be measured at a point three feet from the pool

6.1.2 Size of depth markings. Depth markings shall be in numerals of
four-inch minimum height, followed by the words "foot depth" or "feet
deep," and with color contrasting with background. Depth markers must be
of durable material and permanently installed.

6.2 Lifeguard chairs. Elevated lifeguard chairs shall be provided at
all pools having an area greater than 2,000 square feet that provide
Supervision Level IIa or IIb aquatic supervisory staff. One elevated
lifeguard chair is required for each 3, 400 square feet of pool surface
area or fraction thereof. Chairs should be placed in locations which
will minimize sun glare on the water, and in positions which will give
complete coverage of the pool area under surveillance.

6.3 Lifesaving Equipment. Lifesaving equipment shall be provided as
required in section 6-1.23(b) of this Subpart.

6.3.1 Units required. One unit of lifesaving equipment shall be
provided for each 2,000 square feet of water surface area or fraction
thereof. A minimum of two units must be provided.

6.4 First aid room. Swimming pools with a surface area in excess of
4,000 square feet shall have a readily accessible room or area
designated and equipped for emergency care.

6.5 Emergency exit. An emergency exit from the pool room shall be
provided. All exits should be clearly marked.

7.0 Lighting, electrical, ventilation requirements.

7.1 Lighting. Artificial lighting shall be provided at all swimming
pools which are to be used at night, or which do not have adequate
natural lighting, so that all portions of the pool, including the
bottom, may be readily seen without glare.

7.1.1 Water surface. Overhead illumination on the water surface shall
be a minimum of 30 foot-candles when underwater lighting as specified in
item 7.1.2 is provided. Without underwater lighting, a minimum
illumination of 50 foot-candles on the water surface shall be provided.

7.1.2 Underwater. When underwater lighting is used, not less than 0.5
watt per square foot of swimming pool water surface shall be provided.

7.1.3 Decks. A minimum of 50 foot-candles should be provided at deck
level of competition pools.

7.1.4 Emergency lighting. All indoor pools where night swimming is
permitted, and indoor pools where no natural light is present shall be
provided with an adequate emergency lighting service. For outdoor
pools, a portable battery-powered light source is acceptable and shall
be adequate and maintained to facilitate swimming pool evacuation.

7.1.5 Equipment rooms. All swimming pool equipment and chemical
storage rooms shall be provided with artificial lighting sufficient to
illuminate all equipment and supplies.

7.2 Electrical.

7.2.1 Wiring shall conform to the Uniform Code and the requirements of
the appropriate regulatory agency. A certificate shall be submitted for
all new electrical work. Overhead clearance. No electrical wiring shall pass overhead
within a 20-foot horizontal distance of the pool.

7.2.2 Electrical receptacles. Ground-fault circuit interrupters shall
be provided on all pools, for all lighting and other electrical circuits
in the area of the pool. These devices may be required in an existing
pool, when the permit-issuing official determines it is necessary to
protect the safety of bathers.

7.2.3 Grounding. Each underwater light shall be individually grounded
by means of an adequate ground-wire screwed or bolted connection to the
metal junction box from which the branch circuit to the individual light
proceeds. Such junction boxes shall not be located in the swimming pool
deck within four feet of the pool wall.

7.3 Ventilation.

7.3.1 Room ventilation. Bathhouses, mechanical equipment rooms,
storage areas and indoor swimming pool enclosures shall be ventilated,
either by natural or mechanical means. Room ventilation shall prevent
direct drafts on swimmers and shall minimize condensation. A minimum of
two air changes per hour shall be provided for indoor pool areas. A
heating unit shall be kept from contact with swimmers. Fuel-burning
heating equipment shall be installed and vented to the outdoors in
accordance with the Uniform Code.

8.0 Water supply and wastewater disposal.

8.1 Water supply. The source and quality of the water supplied to the
pool and all plumbing fixtures, including drinking fountains, lavatories
and showers, shall after treatment meet the applicable requirements of
Part 5 of the State Sanitary Code (10 NYCRR Part 5) for potable water.

8.2 Cross-connection control. All portions of the water distribution
system serving the swimming pool and auxiliary facilities shall be
protected against backflow and back-siphonage. Water introduced into the
pool, either directly or to the recirculation system, shall be supplied
through an air gap or by another method which will prevent backflow and

8.3 Fill spout. When a fill spout is used to introduce water into the
swimming pool, it shall be shielded so as not to create a hazard. The
open end of the fill spout shall have no sharp edges, shall not protrude
more than two inches beyond the edge of the pool and shall be at least
six inches above the deck level. If the swimming pool is equipped with a
diving board, consideration shall be given to locating the fill spout
under the diving board.

8.4 Sanitary wastes. Sanitary sewage shall be disposed of through a
municipal sanitary sewerage system. If a private subsurface disposal
system or other system must be used, approval of the system must be
obtained from the appropriate regulatory agency.

8.5 Pool waste water. Pool waste water shall be discharged to the
sewer system or storm drain through a suitable air gap so as to preclude
the possibility of backup of sewage or waste water into the swimming
pool piping system. Approval of the system must be obtained from the
appropriate regulatory agency.

8.6 Drinking fountains. Drinking fountains shall be of slanting
jet-type with a surrounding guard and nonsubmersible opening. They shall
be located at a convenient point and be supplied with adequate water

9.0 Recirculation systems and equipment. A recirculation system
consisting of pumps, piping, filters, water conditioning and
disinfection equipment, and other accessory equipment, shall be provided
which will clarify, chemically balance and disinfect the swimming pool
water. A minimum turnover of the entire volume in six hours (four times
in 24 hours) is required, except that the recirculation rate shall be
increased to provide a two-hour turnover for wading pools, and as set
forth in item 15.0 of this section for special-purpose pools.

9.1 Equipment approval. Equipment used or proposed for use in swimming
pools shall be of proven design and construction and be tested as
follows: (1) tested and listed by the National Sanitation Foundation
(NSF) or another testing laboratory under standards promulgated by NSF;
or (2) use-tested in New York or another state in at least 10 pools of
comparable design for a period of at least 60 days, with engineering
reports on results of use submitted; or (3) pilot-plant testing of at
least 90 days, with formal submission of an operational report prepared
by the design engineer or architect; or (4) a combination of use and
testing or a trial use period approved by the permit-issuing official
and the State Commissioner of Health.

9.2 Piping.

9.2.1 Materials. The recirculating piping and fittings shall be of
nontoxic material, resistant to corrosion, and able to withstand
operating pressures. Acceptable materials for pool recirculation
systems are plastic, copper, stainless steel, asbestos cement, aluminum,
cast iron or other material suitable for water supply use.

9.2.2 Velocities. The pipes, fittings and valves of the pool
recirculation system shall be sized so that velocities do not exceed 6
feet per second under suction, 10 feet per second under pressure and 3
feet per second in gravity flow.

9.3 Drainage and installation. All equipment and piping shall be
designed and fabricated to drain completely by use of drain plugs, drain
valves or other means. All piping shall be supported continuously or at
sufficiently close intervals to prevent sagging. All suction piping
shall be sloped in one direction, preferably toward the pump. All supply
and return pipelines to the pool shall be provided with insertable plugs
or valves to allow the piping to be drained to a point below the frost
line. Provision shall be made for expansion and contraction of pipes.

9.4 Color coding. All exposed piping should be color-coded in
accordance with the following table:



Color code

Waste lines

Color code


Potable water lines

Dark blue

Backwash waste

Dark brown

Filtered water


Sewer (sewer or other)

Dark gray

Skimmer or gutter return

Olive green

Deck drains

Light brown

Main drain







Chlorine (gas/solution)


Compressed air

Dark green

Soda ash








Where two colors do not have sufficient contrast to easily differentiate
between them, a six-inch band of contrasting color should be painted on
one pipe at approximately 30-inch intervals. The name of the liquid or
gas, and arrows indicating direction of flow, should be shown on the

9.5 Overflow systems. All pools shall be designed to provide
continuous skimming (removal of surface water). Make-up water supply
equipment shall be provided to maintain continuous skimming.

9.5.1 Gutters (perimeter overflow systems). The overflow shall extend
completely around the pool. It shall be level within a tolerance of plus
or minus one-eighth inch. Piping connections shall be provided to permit
water to flow from overflows to the recirculation system. Size and shape. The gutter system shall be designed for
continuous removal of water from the pool's upper surface at a rate of
at least 100 percent of the recirculation rate. The gutter shall be
designed to serve as a handgrip and to prevent entrapment of arms and
legs. It shall permit ready inspection, cleaning and repair. Outlets. Drop boxes, converters, return piping or flumes used
to convey water from the gutter shall be designed to handle 100 percent
of the recirculation rate. Drainage shall be sufficient to minimize
flooding and prevent backflow of skimmed water into the pool. Surge capacity. All overflow systems shall be designed with an
effective surge capacity of not less than one gallon for each square
foot of pool surface area. Surge shall be provided within a surge tank,
in the gutter or filter above the normal flow line, or elsewhere in the
system. Surge tanks, gutters and filter tanks should have overflow
pipes to convey excess water to waste. Surge tanks shall be provided
with means for complete draining.

9.5.2 Skimmers. The use of skimmers shall be limited to pools with
widths of 30 feet or less and a water surface area less than 1,600
square feet. Number. In pools where skimmers are used, one skimmer for
each 400 square feet of surface area or fraction thereof shall be
provided. Additional skimmers may be required to achieve effective
skimming. Location. Skimmers shall be so located as to provide effective
skimming of the entire water surface with minimum interference and
short-circuiting. Flow rate. Skimmers shall be designed for a flow-through rate
of at least 30 gallons per minute or 3.75 gallons per minute per lineal
inch of weir. The swimming pool recirculation rate is determined by the
total of: design flow rate required by the number of skimmers, and the
flow through the main drain system, as specified in Item 9.6.4, and must
supply the minimum turnover rate required by Item 9.0. Control. Skimmers shall have weirs that adjust automatically
and operate freely and continuously with variations of at least four
inches in water level. All skimmed water shall pass through an easily
removable and cleanable basket or screen before encountering control
valves or entering the pump suction line. Each skimmer shall be equipped
with a device to control flow. Skimmers shall include a device to
prevent an air lock in the suction line. If equalizer pipes are used,
they shall pass an adequate amount of water to meet pump suction
requirements should pool water drop below the weir level. The equalizer
pipes shall be located at least one foot below the lowest overflow level
of the skimmer. A valve or equivalent device that will remain tightly
closed under normal operating conditions, but automatically open when
the water level drops below the minimum operating level of the skimmer,
shall be provided on each equalizer pipe. Construction. Skimmers shall be installed in the pool walls,
be sturdy and be constructed of corrosion-resistant materials. Surface
skimmers shall be of a type the permit-issuing official determines as
adequate and suitable for such purpose. Handgrips. Bull-nosed coping not more than two inches thick or
other handgrip adjacent to the pool wall shall be provided. The handgrip
shall not be more than nine inches above the minimum skimmer operating
level. When the handgrip is formed by the pool deck, it shall slope away
from the pool with a one-inch drop in a one-foot distance.

9.5.3 Testing. Flotation testing should be performed to determine and
adjust the recirculation system for optimum skimming.

9.6 Main drain system. Two main drain suction outlets shall be
installed in the pool floor at the deepest point with a separation
distance of three feet or more provided. If the floor of a spa pool is
insufficient for a separation distance of three feet, then the
separation distance shall be as great as possible. The suction outlets
shall be connected to a single main suction pipe by branch lines and the
branch lines shall not be valved so as to be capable of operating

9.6.1 Spacing. The drains shall not be greater than 20 feet on centers
and the drain outlets shall be provided not more than 15 feet from each
side wall.

9.6.2 Grating. The main drain suction outlet shall be protected by
antivortex covers or gratings. The open area shall be large enough to
assure the velocity does not exceed 1-1/2 feet per second through the
grating. Openings in grates shall not be over one-half inch wide.
Gratings or drain covers shall not be removable without the use of

9.6.3 Piping. The branch pipe from each main drain suction outlet
shall be designed to carry 100 percent of the recirculation rate. The
suction velocity in the pipe shall not exceed six feet per second. The
single main suction pipe to the pump shall be equipped with a valve to
control total main drain flow.

9.6.4 Minimum flow. At least 30 percent of the total recirculation
rate should flow through the main drain.

9.7 Pumps and strainers.

9.7.1 Strainers. Strainers shall be provided through which all water
shall pass before entering the pump. The strainers shall be of rigid
construction, fabricated of corrosion-resistant material and
sufficiently strong to prevent collapsing when clogged. The openings
shall be no greater than one-eighth inch in any dimension. The total
clear area of all openings shall be at least four times the area of the
connecting pipe. The strainer shall have a quick-opening cover. Spare
strainer baskets shall be provided. In systems where the filter is
located on the suction side of the pump, strainers are not required.

9.7.2 Pumping equipment. The recirculation pump shall have adequate
capacity to meet the design requirements of the pool, including filter
backwashing. It shall be of a self-priming type if installed above the
hydraulic gradient. A gauge which indicates both pressure and vacuum
shall be installed on the pump suction header and a pressure gauge shall
be installed on the discharge side of the pump.

9.8 Flow measurement and control.

9.8.1 Flow measurement. A means of continuously measuring rate of flow
shall be provided in the recirculation system. For sand filters, the
flow-measuring equipment shall be located where the backwash flow rate
can also be determined. The indicator shall be capable of measuring at
least 1-1/2 times the design flow rate and shall be accurate within 10
percent of true flow. The indicator shall have a range of readings
appropriate for the anticipated flow rates, and be installed where it is
readily accessible for reading and maintenance, and with straight pipe
upstream and downstream of any fitting or restriction in accordance with
the manufacturer's recommendation.

9.8.2 Flow regulation. An automatic device for regulating the rate of
flow shall be provided in the recirculation pump discharge piping. Where
multiple pumps or filters are provided, each unit shall have a
flow-regulating device installed.

9.9 Inlets.

9.9.1 Number. Wall inlets shall be spaced not over 20 feet apart, with
one inlet within five feet of each corner of the pool and one in each
recessed step area.

9.9.2 Location. Wall inlets shall be located at least 12 inches below
the design water surface. Bottom inlets shall be uniformly spaced with a
separation distance of no greater than 20 feet and with rows of inlets
within 15 feet of each side wall. In any pool over 60 feet in width,
bottom inlets should be provided. These must be flush with the floor.

9.9.3 Type. Inlet fittings shall be of the adjustable rate-of-flow
type. Directional flow inlets shall be used with skimmer-type pools.
Inlets shall not extend from the floor or wall to create a hazard.

9.9.4 Testing. Dye testing (crystal violet or equivalent) should be
performed to determine and adjust the recirculation pattern.

10.0 Filtration (general). A swimming pool water treatment system
shall have one or more filters. It shall be installed with adequate
clearance and facilities for ready and safe inspection, maintenance,
disassembly and repair.

10.1 Sand filters. The design filtration rate of rapid sand filters
shall not exceed three gallons per minute per square foot of filter
area. High-rate sand filters (pressure or vacuum) shall not exceed a
filtration rate of 15 gallons per minute per square foot of filter area.
For multiple-cell rapid sand filters, the rate of filtration shall not
exceed 3 gpm per square foot of filter area. For multi-cell high-rate
sand filters, filtration rate shall not exceed 5 gpm per square foot of
filter area. The sand filter system shall be equipped to backwash each
filter at a rate of 12 to 15 gallons per minute per square foot of
filter bed area, or as recommended by the manufacturer. The backwash
water shall be discharged to waste through a suitable air gap.

10.1.1 Filter media. Sand or other media shall be carefully graded and
meet the manufacturer's recommendation for pool use.

10.1.2 Accessories shall include influent pressure gauge, effluent
pressure gauge, backwash sight glass and air relief valve.

10.2 Diatomaceous earth. The design filtration rate for pressure or
vacuum filters shall be no greater than 1.5 gallons per minute per
square foot of effective filter area, except that a maximum filtration
rate of 2.0 gallons per minute per square foot may be allowed where
continuous "body feed" is provided. The filter and all component parts
shall be of such materials, design and construction to withstand normal
continuous use without significant deformation, deterioration, corrosion
or wear which could adversely affect filter operation.

10.2.1 Precoating. The filter piping shall be designed to refilter or
waste the effluent until a uniform body coat is applied. For
pressure-type filters, precoat feed equipment shall be provided to apply
not less than 0.1 pound of diatomaceous earth per square foot of filter

10.2.2 Body feed equipment. Body feed equipment capable of applying
not less than 0.1 pound of diatomaceous earth per square foot of filter
area per 24 hours should be provided.

10.2.3 Regenerative-type filters. Regenerative type of filters shall
meet the same standards as pressure filters. Pumping by air or manual
means must be provided for, and provision for visual inspection of
elements shall be provided.

10.2.4 Accessories. Accessories for vacuum filters shall include a
vacuum gauge and a vacuum limit switch interconnected with the pump.
Pressure filters require a backwash sight glass, influent pressure
gauge, effluent pressure gauge and air relief valve.

10.2.5 Backwash. Diatomaceous earth filter backwash water must
discharge to the sewer system through a separation tank. The separation
tank sludge shall be disposed of in an approved solid waste disposal

10.3 Cartridge filters: filter rate. The design filtration rate for
cartridge filters shall not exceed 0.375 gallon per minute per square
foot of filter media.

10.3.1 Cartridges. A complete extra set of filter cartridges must be
on hand at user's location.

10.3.2 Accessories shall include influent pressure gauge, effluent
pressure gauge and air relief valve.

11.0 Disinfection. Swimming pools shall be designed to provide for
continuous disinfection of the pool water with a chemical which is an
effective disinfectant and which imparts an easily measured, active

11.1 Disinfectant feeders. An automatic feeder which is easily
adjustable shall be provided for the application of disinfectant.

11.1.1 Construction. Feeders shall be of sturdy construction and
materials which will withstand wear, corrosion or attack by disinfectant
solutions or vapors, and which are not adversely affected by repeated,
regular adjustments or other normal use conditions.

11.1.2 Maintenance. Feeders shall be capable of being easily
disassembled for cleaning and maintenance.

11.1.3 Operation. The design and construction shall minimize stoppage
from chemicals intended to be used or foreign materials that may be
contained therein.

11.1.4 Safeguards. The feeders shall incorporate antisiphon safeguards
so that the disinfectant cannot continue to feed into the swimming pool,
the pool piping system or the swimming pool enclosure if any type of
failure of the pool equipment occurs.

11.1.5 Capacity. Feeders shall be capable of supplying disinfectant to
the pool in the range up to 10 mg/1 chlorine or equivalent.

11.2 Gas chlorination. When compressed chlorine gas is used, the
following features shall be provided. Gas chlorine should not be used at
pools in densely populated areas.

11.2.1 Location. The chlorinator room shall be located on the opposite
side of the pool from the direction of the prevailing winds. Chlorine
storage and chlorinating equipment shall be in a separate room. This
room shall be at or above grade.

11.2.2 Venting. The chlorine room shall have a ventilating fan with an
airtight duct beginning near the floor and terminating at a safe point
of discharge to the out-of-doors. A louvered air intake shall be
provided near the ceiling. The ventilating fan shall provide one air
change per minute and operate from a switch located outside the door.

11.2.3 Door. The door of the chlorinator room shall not open to the
swimming pool, and shall open outward directly to the exterior of the
building. The door shall be provided with a shatterproof inspection
window and should be provided with "panic hardware."

11.2.4 Chlorine cylinders. Chlorine cylinders shall be anchored. The
cylinders in use shall stand on a scale capable of indicating gross
weight with one-half pound accuracy. Storage space shall be provided so
that chlorine cylinders are not subjected to direct sunlight. Storage
space shall be in an area inaccessible to the general public.

11.2.5 Injection location. Mixing of chlorine gas and water shall
occur in the chlorine room, except where vacuum-type chlorinators are

11.2.6 Backflow. The chlorinators shall be designed to prevent the
backflow of water or moisture into the chlorine gas cylinder.

11.2.7 Breathing apparatus. A self-contained breathing apparatus
designed for use in a chlorine atmosphere (and of a type approved by the
appropriate regulatory agency) shall be provided. A closed cabinet shall
be provided to house the breathing apparatus. It shall be located
outside of the chlorinator room.

11.2.8 Leak detection. A plastic bottle of ammonia for leak detection
shall be provided.

11.3 Hypochlorinators. Where hypochlorinators are used, the following
requirements shall apply:

11.3.1 Feed. Feed shall be continuous under all conditions of pressure
in the recirculation system without constriction of the recirculation
pump suction.

11.3.2 Solution tanks. If calcium hypochlorite is used, two solution
tanks, each with minimum capacity of one-day supply, should be provided.
All chemical containers, including those used with chemical feeders,
must be clearly labeled regarding their contents.

11.4 Disinfection with bromine. Where bromine is used as a
disinfectant, the permit-issuing official shall first approve use of
solid stick-type bromine and the equipment provided for feeding on a
continuous basis.

11.5 Chemical feed equipment. Equipment and piping used to apply
chemicals to the water shall be of such size, design and material that
they may be cleaned. All material used for such equipment and piping
shall be resistant to action of chemicals to be used therein.

11.5.1 Ozone generating equipment (OGE) is acceptable only as a
supplement to a chlorine or bromine disinfection system. When OGE is
installed, the following design performance standards must be met: Ozone concentration in the pool water shall not exceed 0.1
mg/l. Off-gassing of ozone shall not result in ozone levels in the
equipment room or in the pool area exceeding 0.1 ppm. At the time the
OGE is installed and annually thereafter the air space within 6 inches
of the pool water level and air in the equipment room shall be tested to
determine compliance with this requirement. All corona discharge OGEs must be vacuum systems. Backflow of pool water into the OGE shall not occur.

11.6 pH adjustment. Mechanical feed equipment for the purpose of
adding a chemical for pH adjustment shall be provided, except where pH
can be maintained within the required limits without the use of positive
feed equipment. The methods for addition of chemicals must be specified
in the safety plan. The method of chemical addition must protect the
bather from contact with concentrated chemicals. The method must provide
adequate distribution of the chemical throughout the pool and
distribution must be verified by pool water testing prior to bather

11.6.1 Where carbon dioxide (CO2) is used as a method of pH control,
the following features shall be provided: CO2 shall be injected into the recirculation pipe at the same
point where pH adjustment solutions (i.e., acid) would normally be
added. The recirculation pipe shall be of sufficient size and length to
provide a minimum of five seconds contact time prior to bather contact. CO2 cylinders shall be anchored to prevent damage. Cylinders
shall be inaccessible to the general public. The manufacturer's instructions shall be followed for
installation and operation of cylinders. The units shall be operated by
the designated persons listed in the safety plan. CO2 cylinders should be stored in a protective enclosure at
the exterior of occupied structures. If CO2 cylinders are provided in
the interior of occupied structures, they shall be placed in a
ventilated enclosure. A louvered fresh air intake shall be provided near
the ceiling. Mechanical exhaust ventilation shall be provided near at
the rate of one air change every three minutes and take suction near the
floor as far as practical from the door and fresh air intake. Exhausted
air shall be ducted to the exterior of the building through a continuous
pipe of at least 1-1/2 inches in diameter with the point of discharge so
located as not to contaminate air inlets to any rooms or structures.

11.7 An automatic device shall be provided to deactivate chemical
feeders when there is no flow in the recirculation system.

11.8 Test kit. Colorimetric test kits shall be provided for the
determination of free disinfectant residual, pH of the pool water and,
where necessary, total alkalinity and calcium hardness. A supply of
appropriate reagents for making each type of test shall be provided.
Color standards shall be furnished for each of the tests, that allow an
accurate comparison of the sample to be tested, both from the standpoint
of color and density, and shall be reasonably permanent and nonfading.
Electronic residual and pH monitoring devices may be used in addition to
the test kit.

11.8.1 Standards. A DPD (Diethyl-P-Phenylene Diamine) test kit with
the following increments: 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0, as
a minimum, shall be provided to measure the chlorine residual. If other
halogens are used, an appropriate scale shall be provided.

11.8.2 pH kit. A pH test kit with a range from 6.8 to 8.2, accurate to
the nearest 0.2 pH unit, shall be provided.

12.0 Bathhouse.

12.1 General. Adequate dressing rooms and sanitary facilities shall be
provided for all swimming pools. Omission of part or all of the poolside
toilet facilities may be approved when such facilities are available
within 300 feet and no more than one floor level above or below the
swimming pool.

12.2 Location. The bathhouse shall be located so that the patrons must
pass through the bathhouse to enter the pool. The layout of the
bathhouse shall be such that the patrons on leaving the dressing room
pass the toilets, then the showers, en route to the swimming pool.

12.3 Bathhouse design. Floors of the bathhouse shall be of
smooth-finished material with nonslip surfaces, impervious to moisture,
easily cleanable and sloped at least one-fourth inch per foot to drains.
Carpeting shall not be permitted in shower and toilet areas. Junctions
between walls and floors shall be coved and of smooth, impervious
materials, free from cracks or open joints. Partitions between dressing
cubicles shall terminate at least 10 inches above the floor, or shall be
placed on continuous raised masonry or concrete bases at least four
inches high. Lockers shall be set either on solid masonry or concrete
bases at least four inches above the floor. Lockers shall be vented.

12.4 Fixture requirements. An adequate number of toilet and
handwashing facilities shall be provided.

12.4.1 Fixtures. Plumbing fixtures and installations shall be in
accordance with the Uniform Code.

12.5 Suits and towels. Where towels and/or swimming suits are
provided, facilities shall be provided to adequately launder, store and
sanitize these items after each usage.

12.6 Foot baths. The use of foot baths is prohibited.

12.7 Hose bibbs. Hose bibbs shall be provided within the bathhouse to
enable the entire area to be flushed with a 50-foot hose. Hose bibbs
shall be provided with antisiphonage devices.

13.0 Miscellaneous.

13.1 Pool cleaning system. A cleaning system shall be provided to
remove dirt from the bottom of the pool. When a vacuum system is used as
an integral part of the recirculation system, connections shall be
located in the walls of the swimming pool at least eight inches below
the waterline, and at such points that the floor of the pool can be
cleaned with not more than 50 feet of suction hose. Nothing in this
section shall prohibit the use of surface skimmers for vacuum cleaning

13.2 Manual. A manual for operation of the pool shall be provided. It
shall include instructions for each filter, pump or other piece of
equipment, drawings, illustrations, charts, operating instructions and
parts list, to permit installation, operation, winterization and

14.0 Spa pools. Spa pools shall comply with the following special
requirements, in addition to other applicable requirements contained in
these design standards.

14.1 Construction material. The construction material shall comply
with the requirements of item 4.0 of this section. Use of unlined wood
tanks is prohibited.

14.2 Dimensional design.

14.2.1 The maximum water depth shall be 4'0" measured from the
waterline. Exceptions may be made for spas designed for a special
purpose, such as instruction, treatment, swimming and therapy.

14.2.2 The maximum depth of any seat shall be 2'0", measured from the

14.2.3 Spas shall be provided with a suitable handhold around their
perimeter in areas where water depths exceed 3'6". Handholds shall be
provided no further apart than 4'0", and may consist of any one or a
combination of the following: Coping, ledges, raised flanges, or decks along the immediate
top edge of the spa shall provide a suitable slip-resistant handhold
located not over 12 inches above the waterline. Ladders, steps or seat ledges. A railing, placed at or not over 12 inches above the
waterline, fastened to the wall.

14.3 Steps. Design of steps shall conform to the following:

14.3.1 Step treads shall have a minimum unobstructed horizontal tread
depth of 10 inches for a minimum continuous width of 12 inches.

14.3.2 Riser height shall not be less than 7 inches nor greater than
12 inches. When the bottom tread serves as a bench or seat, the bottom
riser may be a maximum of 14 inches.

14.3.3 Step treads shall have slip-resistant tread surfaces.

14.3.4 Each set of steps shall be provided with at least one handrail
to fully serve all treads and risers.

14.3.5 Seats or benches may be provided as part of the steps.

14.4 Ladders. Ladders shall conform to the requirements of item 5.8.2
of this section.

14.5 Recessed steps. Recessed steps shall conform to item 5.8.3.

14.6 Decks. Decks shall conform to the requirements set forth in item
5.9, with the exception that, at spa pools, decks may be waived for 50
percent of the pool perimeter. Placement of chairs or other furniture
shall be prohibited within three feet of the edge of any spa pool.

14.7 Heater and temperature requirements.

14.7.1 Heaters shall comply with the standards contained in the
Uniform Code.

14.7.2 The maximum temperature of the spa water shall be 104?F. A
thermostatic control for the water shall be required. An alarm system
set to ring a bell or buzzer shall be installed to warn of any
temperature over 104?F. The alarm shall ring in the spa area as well as
at the attendant's normal work station. A manual timer shall be
installed that will require resetting after 15 minutes. This timer will
ring a warning bell and may control the agitation pump.

14.8 Circulation systems. The equipment for circulation and filtration
shall be sized to turn over the entire spa water capacity at least once
every 30 minutes, and shall be capable of returning the spa water to a
turbidity of less than 0.50 NTU within four hours following the peak
bather load.

14.8.1 Overflow system. An overflow system shall be provided. It shall
be designed and constructed so that the water level of the spa is at the
operating level of the rim or weir device during use and nonuse of the
spa. When surface skimmers are used, one surface skimmer shall be
provided for each 100 square feet or fraction thereof of spa surface
area. Recirculation through the skimmer shall be at least 30
gpm/skimmer. When two or more skimmers are used in a spa, they shall be
located to maintain effective skimming action over the entire surface
area of the spa. Skimmers shall be approved, as set forth in item 9.0 of
this section.

14.9 Filters. Filters shall be designed to maintain spa water under
anticipated operating conditions in accordance with item 14.8 of this
section. The requirements specified in item 10.0 shall apply.

14.10 Pumps and strainers. The recirculation pump and strainer shall
comply with the requirements of item 9.7.

14.11 Air induction systems. An air induction system shall be designed
to prevent water backup that could cause electrical shock hazards. Air
intakes shall not induce contaminants (such as deck water, dirt, etc.)
into the spa.

14.12 Disinfection. The requirements specified in item 11.0 shall
apply. Equipment shall be designed to provide a minimum free residual
chlorine of 1.5 mg/l at all times and capable of superchlorination at 10
mg/l to minimize problems with combined chlorine build-up.

14.13 Safety. A warning sign with an area of at least three square
feet, stating the following caution statements, shall be conspicuously
posted in the vicinity of the spa.


1. Elderly persons, and those suffering from heart disease, diabetes,
high or low blood pressure, should be prohibited from using the spa

2. Unsupervised use by children is prohibited.

3. Do not use while under the influence of alcohol, anticoagulants,
antihistamines, vasoconstrictors, vasodilators, stimulants, hypnotics,
narcotics or tranquilizers.

4. Do not use alone.

5. Observe a reasonable time limit (e.g., 15 minutes), then shower,
cool down and, if you wish, return for another brief stay. Long exposure
may result in nausea, dizziness or fainting.

6. Help can be obtained by using the telephone and posted emergency
telephone numbers for police, fire department, physician, ambulance and

15.0 Special-purpose pools. This item covers additional special
requirements applicable to special-purpose pools. The design engineer
shall consult with the department prior to preparation and submission of
engineer's plans and specifications for special-purpose pools.

15.1 White-water slides. A white-water slide facility shall consist of
one or more flumes, plunge pool, recirculation and chemical treatment

15.1.1 Water depth. The minimum plunge pool operating water depth
shall be three feet. This depth should be maintained in front of the
flume for a distance of at least 20 feet.

15.1.2 Slide flume terminus. The slide flume terminus shall be at a
minimum depth of six inches below the plunge pool operating water
surface level, at water surface level or up to a maximum of two inches
above the water surface level. The flume shall be perpendicular to the
plunge pool wall for at least 10 feet from its end. The distance between the side of a flume exit and a plunge
pool side wall should be at least five feet. The distance between sides of
adjacent flume terminuses should be at least six feet.

15.1.3 Pump reservoir. A pump reservoir shall be provided for the
slide pump intakes. It shall be connected to the plunge pool by a weir.
The minimum reservoir volume shall be equal to twice the combined flow
rate in gallons per minute of all filters and slide pumps.

15.1.4 The flume shall be designed to prevent users from becoming
airborne while in the ride.

15.1.5 Recirculation rate. The recirculation-filtration system of
water slides shall recirculate and filter a water volume equal to the
total volume of the facility in a period of one hour or less.

15.2 Wave pools. Wave pools shall be of such shapes and design as to
be operated and maintained in a safe and sanitary manner.

15.2.1 The recirculation-filtration system of wave pools shall be
capable of one turnover every two hours. The recirculation system shall
be operated continuously 24 hours a day.

15.2.2 A perimeter overflow gutter shall be provided. The gutter may
be interrupted in the area where the water is less than two feet deep.

15.3 Special-purpose pools. Facilities for persons with physical
disabilities shall be designed to provide safe entry and exit from the
pool and sanitary conditions. Facilities for parking, path of travel,
walks, ramps, drinking fountains, telephone, toilets and showers shall
comply with the requirements of Part 1100 of the Uniform Code.

15.3.1 Pool entry. Access for persons with physical disabilities shall
be at the shallow end of the pool. Pool entry should be an 18-inch-high
block of steps followed by a normal set of pool steps. As an alternate,
hoists or ramps are acceptable. Where removable ramps or steps are
provided, the area beneath the ramp or steps shall be protected to
prevent access to swimmers.

15.3.2 Steps and handrails. Stair steps should have risers 5-3/4
inches and a tread 12 to 18 inches wide to allow for sitting. A handrail
32 inches high, extending 18 inches beyond top and bottom steps, must be
provided. A 22-inch handrail must be provided for children. A six-inch
handrail will aid entry for those who cannot stand.

15.3.3 Wheelchairs, if immersed in pool, must be safe, waterproof and
designed for use in the pool environment.

15.3.4 The recirculation-filtration system shall be capable of one
turnover every four hours. The recirculation systems shall be operated
continuously 24 hours a day.

15.4 Movable-bottom pools. Hydraulic-lift swimming pool floors, where
provided, shall be safe and maintenance-free.

15.4.1 Inlets. A jet-water self-cleaning system should be provided so
that the entire pool is self-cleaning. Two sets of return inlets located
at two different heights should be provided to obtain adequate mixing at
all times when the pool is shallow or deep.

15.4.2 Floor movement. Floor movement shall be designed to minimize
turbulence and provide safe entry and exit by persons with physical

15.4.3 Depth signs. A sign for pool water depth in use shall be
provided and clearly lit and visible. "NO DIVING" sign shall also be
provided. The control panel for changing water depth must be located in
a safe place, accessible only to lifeguards and pool operator.

15.4.4 Diving boards. For depths other than design diving depth, the
diving board must be in an upright position and chained or secured to
stop use.

15.4.5 The recirculation-filtration system shall be capable of one
turnover every four hours. The recirculation system shall be operated
continuously 24 hours a day.

15.5 Rolling bulkheads. Rolling bulkheads, when used, shall be
provided with traction wheels running on the pool floor or alternatively
in the overflow gutter. When not in use, these should be stored in a
safe manner. The design should be such that the bathers are not
entrapped under the bulkhead.

15.6 Starting Blocks. Starting blocks, when provided, shall be
designed according to nationally recognized competitive design
standards. These blocks shall be installed over a minimum water depth of
six feet. Starting blocks shall only be used during supervised practices
or swim meets.


VOLUME A (Title 10)